During the 1970s and 1980s, over 30 regularly scheduled 747s could often be seen at John F. Kennedy International Airport. A removable partition on the main deck separated the cargo area at the rear from the passengers at the front. [243], In July 2020, British Airways announced that it was retiring its 747 fleet. [4] Of the 61 Boeing 747 aircraft losses, 32 resulted in no loss of life; in one, a hostage was murdered; and in one, a terrorist died. [227] The derivative would use more efficient unducted fan (UDF) engines (propfans) made by General Electric, be stretched (including the upper deck section) to a capacity of 500 seats, have a new wing to reduce drag, cruise at a faster speed to reduce flight times, and have a range of at least 8,700 nmi (16,000 km), which would allow airlines to fly nonstop between London, England and Sydney, Australia.[228]. ", "Historic 747 reaches grim end in South Korea", James Bond Casino Royale modified Boeing 747-XXX on show ahead of movie première, "Swedish Hotel Fashioned From An Old Jumbo Jet", "Old PIA plane takes new flight as airport security turns it into restaurant: reports", "ASF says its PIA jumbo jet 'restaurant' actually an officers' mess", "Malibu 'Wing House' made of 747 plane parts", "The wing house – a house made out of an old Boeing 747", "747-8 Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning", "Premiere of Boeing 747-8 Intercontinental", "Boeing 747-8 technical description & cutaway", "Statistical Data for the Boeing-747-400 Aircraft in Commercial Operations", "Boeing revises "obsolete" performance assumptions", "The most iconic aircraft in film history", "Pre-fatigued 2219-T87 and 6061-T6 aluminium alloys. [78] Many international carriers continued to use the 747 on Pacific routes. The 747 is a quadjet, initially powered by JT9D turbofan engines, then GE CF6 and Rolls-Royce RB211 engines for the original variants. After the end of the 747X program, Boeing continued to study improvements that could be made to the 747. [81] Minor aerodynamic changes allowed the -300's cruise speed to reach Mach 0.85 compared with Mach 0.84 on the -200 and -100 models, while retaining the same takeoff weight. [116] On July 29, 2020, Boeing confirmed that the final 747 would be delivered in 2022 as a result of "current market dynamics and outlook" stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, according to CEO David Calhoun. Boeing has studied a number of 747 variants that have not gone beyond the concept stage. ", "Boeing: Commercial Airplanes - 747 Fun Facts", "Japan Airlines To Receive 100th Boeing 747 Aircraft. [144] The last 747-100B, EP-IAM was retired by Iran Air in 2014, the last commercial operator of the 747-100 and -100B. Airbus competed with later variants with the heaviest versions of the A340 until surpassing the 747 in size with the A380, introduced in 2007. As of July 2020, a total of 61 Boeing 747 aircraft, or just under 4% of the total number of 747s built, first flown commercially in 1970, have been involved in accidents and incidents resulting in a hull loss, meaning that the aircraft has either been destroyed or has been damaged beyond economical repair. [94] In 2000, Boeing offered the more modest 747X and 747X stretch derivatives as alternatives to the Airbus A3XX. Of the 1,544 produced, 890 are retired; as of 2018[update], a small subset of those which were intended to be parted-out get $3 million D-checks before flying again. While only two -100BSR SUDs were produced, in theory, standard -100Bs can be modified to the SUD certification. This raised cockpit allows front loading of cargo on freight variants. One important test involved the evacuation of 560 volunteers from a cabin mock-up via the aircraft's emergency chutes. The variant has 16% more payload capacity than its predecessor, allowing it to carry seven more standard air cargo containers, with a maximum payload capacity of 154 tons (140 tonnes) of cargo. On December 13, 1969 a test aircraft was being taken to have test equipment removed and a cabin installed when pilot Ralph C. Cokely undershot the airport's short runway. [90] Generally, the 747-400 held between 416 and 524 passengers. However, only RB211-524 (Saudia) and JT9D-7A (Iran Air) engines were ordered. [23], Ultimately, the high-winged CX-HLS Boeing design was not used for the 747, although technologies developed for their bid had an influence. In 1979, Qantas became the first airline in the world to operate an all Boeing 747 fleet with seventeen. 1 engine pylon to wing attachment caused this engine to tilt nose down. At the time, it was widely thought that the 747 would eventually be superseded by supersonic transport aircraft. The heavier 747-400 with improved RB-211 and CF6 versions, along with the PW4000 (the JT9D successor), and a two-crew glass cockpit, was introduced in 1989 and is the most common variant. Power is supplied by General Electric GEnx-2B67 engines. [4] Korean Air Lines Flight 007 was shot down by a Soviet fighter aircraft in 1983 after it had strayed into Soviet territory, causing US President Ronald Reagan to authorize the then-strictly military global positioning system (GPS) for civilian use. [165], The 747-300 features a 23-foot-4-inch-longer (7.11 m) upper deck than the -200. The 747-400ERF entered service with Air France in October 2002, while the 747-400ER entered service with Qantas,[186] its sole customer, in November 2002. [175] As of July 2019[update], only two 747-300s remain in commercial service, with Mahan Air (1) and TransAVIAexport Airlines (1). This aircraft first flew on June 20, 1979, received FAA certification on August 1, 1979, and was delivered the next day. The Jumbo Stay hostel, using a converted 747-200 formerly registered as 9V-SQE, opened at Arlanda Airport, Stockholm in January 2009. ", "Aircraft Accident Report: In-flight Breakup Over the Atlantic Ocean Trans World Airlines Flight 800", "Airlines Ordered to Cut Fuel-Tank Explosion Risk. The 747-300M features cargo capacity on the rear portion of the main deck, similar to the -200M, but with the stretched upper deck it can carry more passengers. Standard shipping containers are 8 ft (2.4 m) square at the front (slightly higher due to attachment points) and available in 20 and 40 ft (6.1 and 12 m) lengths. Boeing announced the 747 ASB (Advanced Short Body) in 1986 as a response to the Airbus A340 and the McDonnell Douglas MD-11. [133] The initial 747SR model, the -100SR, had a strengthened body structure and landing gear to accommodate the added stress accumulated from a greater number of takeoffs and landings. [297][298] Appearing in over 300 film productions[299] the 747 is one of the most widely depicted civilian aircraft and is considered by many as one of the most iconic in film history. By June 2020, 1,556 aircraft had been built, with 15 747-8s remaining on order. 907 km/h (490 kt), max. [92], Since the arrival of the 747-400, several stretching schemes for the 747 have been proposed. ", "J.A.L. [164] As of July 2019[update], five 747-200s remain in service as freighters. As increasing numbers of "classic" 747-100 and 747-200 series aircraft have been retired, some finding other uses such as museum displays. The -100SR entered service with JAL, the type's sole customer, on October 7, 1973, and typically operated flights within Japan. [124], For transportation of spare engines, the 747 can accommodate a non-functioning fifth-pod engine under the aircraft's port wing between the inner functioning engine and the fuselage. 7 May 1990. )[29], One of the principal technologies that enabled an aircraft as large as the 747 to be drawn up was the high-bypass turbofan engine. [140] JAL operated the -100BSR SUD with 563 seats on domestic routes until their retirement in the third quarter of 2006. [155], The 747-200B was the basic passenger version, with increased fuel capacity and more powerful engines; it entered service in February 1971. [31][32] Pratt & Whitney was also working on the same principle and, by late 1966, Boeing, Pan Am and Pratt & Whitney agreed to develop a new engine, designated the JT9D to power the 747. [56] The program was further delayed when one of the five test aircraft suffered serious damage during a landing attempt at Renton Municipal Airport, site of the company's Renton factory. Originally flown commercially by Pan Am as N747PA, Clipper Juan T. Trippe, and repaired for service following a tailstrike, it stayed with the airline until its bankruptcy. [27] In early models it was not clear what to do with the small space in the pod behind the cockpit, and this was initially specified as a "lounge" area with no permanent seating. ", The last B747-SP is going to retire on 15 June, "Iran Air retires last remaining pax B747-200", "Boeing 747-100/-200/-300/-SP airport report. [144] The -200 was the first 747 to provide a choice of powerplant from the three major engine manufacturers. "Boeing Shuns Very Large Jets While Aiming for Longer Range. On December 20, 1995, Tower Air Flight 41, a 747-100, veered off the left side of runway 4L during an attempted takeoff at John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), Jamaica, New York. The aircraft was to carry 295 passengers a range of 8,000 nmi (9,200 mi; 15,000 km). The 747 cockpit roof section also has an escape hatch from which crew can exit during the events of an emergency if they cannot do so through the cabin. [131] A total of 168 747-100s were built; 167 were delivered to customers, while Boeing kept the prototype, City of Everett. Sir Fred Hoyle FRS (24 June 1915 – 20 August 2001) was an English astronomer who formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.He also held controversial stances on other scientific matters—in particular his rejection of the "Big Bang" theory, a term coined by him on BBC radio, and his promotion of panspermia as the origin of life on Earth.He also wrote science fiction … Of the 468 persons aboard (451 passengers, 12 cabin crewmembers, 3 flightcrew members, and 2 cockpit jumpseat occupants), 24 passengers sustained minor injuries, and a flight attendant received serious injuries. Overall, the 747 trijet would have had more payload, range, and passenger capacity than both of them. A year later, Boeing switched from the 747X studies to pursue the Sonic Cruiser,[95] and after the Sonic Cruiser program was put on hold, the 787 Dreamliner. [79] In Japan, 747s on domestic routes were configured to carry nearly the maximum passenger capacity. The payload bay had to be 17 feet (5.18 m) wide by 13.5 feet (4.11 m) high and 100 feet (30 m) long with access through doors at the front and rear. The 747 was found to be largely immune to "Dutch roll", a phenomenon that had been a major hazard to the early swept-wing jets. [86] The stretched upper deck (SUD) has two emergency exit doors and is the most visible difference between the -300 and previous models. As of 2020[update], 61 Boeing 747s have been lost in accidents, in which a total of 3,722 people have died. ", "Uranium Pollution from the Amsterdam 1992 Plane Crash. [65] Although technical problems occurred, they were relatively minor and quickly solved. [68][69] While the 747 had the lowest potential operating cost per seat, this could only be achieved when the aircraft was fully loaded; costs per seat increased rapidly as occupancy declined. The first full-scale evacuation took two and a half minutes instead of the maximum of 90 seconds mandated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and several volunteers were injured. [111] With a firm order backlog of 21 aircraft and a production rate of six per year, program accounting has been reduced to 1,555 aircraft, and the 747 line could be closed in the third quarter of 2019. The SP's flaps used a simplified single-slotted configuration. ", "Photos: Boeing 747-100 Assembly Line In 1969", "Aircraft Owner's & Operator's Guide: 747-200/-300", The 747 Takes Off: The Dawn of the Jumbo Jet Age, "This Luxury Boeing 747-8 for the Super-Rich is a Palace in the Sky", "How Boeing and Pan Am created an airliner legend", "Boeing 747: Evolution Of A Jumbo, As Featured On Aviation Week's Covers", "Boeing's Jumbo jet celebrates golden jubilee", "Boeing's Queen Of The Skies Marks 50th Anniversary Of First Flight", "Evolution of a Widebody: 50 Years of the Boeing 747", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Boeing_747&oldid=1008264146#747-200, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from December 2020, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, Articles containing potentially dated statements from July 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from July 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from June 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1,562 (incl. With a ten-abreast economy seating, it typically accommodates 366 passengers in three travel classes. ", "High-Lift Systems on Commercial Subsonic Airliners", "Everett and Renton react differently to Boeing. ", "Boeing Puts Last Dreamlifter In Service", "Boeing 747 Dreamlifter Achieves FAA Certification. [4] At various times, the largest 747-400 operator has included Singapore Airlines,[190] Japan Airlines,[190] and British Airways with 36 as of July 2018[update]. "Till 8:00 AM 13 … … With increased economy class seating, up to 498 passengers could be carried in early versions and up to 550 in later models. This meant that it would be possible to support a 2-wide 2-high stack of containers two or three ranks deep with a fuselage size similar to the earlier CX-HLS project. The 747 entered service on January 22, 1970, on Pan Am's New York–London route;[64] the flight had been planned for the evening of January 21, but engine overheating made the original aircraft unusable. [30] The engine technology was thought to be capable of delivering double the power of the earlier turbojets while consuming one–third less fuel. [182] The 747-400D was built for short-range operations with maximum seating for 624. [205] The 747-8 has surpassed the Airbus A340-600 as the world's longest airliner. [115], On July 2, 2020, it was reported that Boeing planned to end 747 production in 2022 upon delivery of the remaining jets on order to UPS and the Volga-Dnepr Group due to low demand. The aircraft was damaged beyond repair. On February 8, 2010, the 747-8 Freighter made its maiden flight. Finding a substitute delayed the flight by more than six hours to the following day when Clipper Victor was used. [302], Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era, American wide-body long–range commercial jet aircraft, For design details of a particular generation, see, Further developments and end of production, split numbers denote different limits depending on exit types installed, Mecham, M. "In review: 747, Creating the World's First Jumbo Jet and Other Adventures from a Life in Aviation. [117] As of January 2021 Boeing is to deliver the last four 747s to Atlas Air in 2022. [11][12] In 1965, Lockheed's aircraft design and General Electric's engine design were selected for the new C-5 Galaxy transport, which was the largest military aircraft in the world at the time. ", "Commercial Transport Market Still in Rough Shape", "A380 buyer keeps mum about possible luxuries aboard cruise ship of the skies. The -100BSR first flew on November 3, 1978, with first delivery to All Nippon Airways (ANA) on December 21, 1978. [199] As on previous 747 freighters, the 747-8F features an overhead nose-door and a side-door on the main deck plus a side-door on the lower deck ("belly") to aid loading and unloading. [27] The upper deck behind the cockpit provides space for a lounge and/or extra seating. [101] As of 2011[update], most orders of the 747-8 have been for the freighter variant. [81] The shortened 747SP (special performance) with a longer range was also developed, and entered service in 1976. [9] There have been several hijackings of Boeing 747s, such as Boeing 747-121 Pan Am Flight 73, hijacked by four terrorists, causing 20 deaths. Boeing said Tuesday it again suffered more cancellations than new orders for aircraft in January as the Covid-19 pandemic continues to weigh on airlines. ", "First 747-400 Boeing Converted Freighter Redelivered to Cathay Pacific. [95] Though the 747X design was less costly than the 747-500X and -600X, it was criticized for not offering a sufficient advance from the existing 747-400. [91] The 747 remained the heaviest commercial aircraft in regular service until the debut of the Antonov An-124 Ruslan in 1982; variants of the 747-400 surpassed the An-124's weight in 2000. ", "FAA Registry: Aircraft Inquiry: N-481EV", GE AVIATION DONATES 747-100 TESTBED TO MUSEUM, "Historic Aircraft Lands at Air and Space Museum. [147] In addition to airline use, one 747SP was modified for the NASA/German Aerospace Center SOFIA experiment. VT-EBO. [231] Power would have been supplied by either the Engine Alliance GP7172 or the Rolls-Royce Trent 600, which were also proposed for the 767-400ERX. Boeing president William M. Allen asked Malcolm T. Stamper, then head of the company's turbine division, to oversee construction of the Everett factory and to start production of the 747. [93] Boeing was not able to attract enough interest to launch the aircraft. Rolls-Royce followed 747 engine production with a launch order from British Airways for four aircraft. 2 undelivered Boeing testbeds) as of December 2020, econ. [193] The aircraft is certified to carry only essential crew and not passengers. A number of other governments also use the 747 as a VIP transport, including Bahrain, Brunei, Source for orders and deliveries: Boeing data through end of January 2021, 19896/019 – 747-132(SF) registration N481EV at the, 19651/025 – 747-121 registration N747GE at the, 19778/027 – 747-151 registration N601US nose at the, 20107/086 – 747-123 registration N905NA, a NASA Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, at the, 20269/150 – 747-136 registration G-AWNG nose at, 20239/160 – 747-244B registration ZS-SAN nicknamed, 20541/200 – 747-128 registration F-BPVJ at. Its range has increased from 5,300 nautical miles (6,100 mi, 9,800 km) on the -100 to 8,000 nmi (9,200 mi, 14,815 km) on the -8I. On June 7, 2006, Tradewinds International Airlines Flight 444, a 747-200F, aborted a takeoff from Rionegro/Medellín-José María Córdova Airport and overran the runway. [41], Developing the 747 had been a major challenge, and building its assembly plant was also a huge undertaking. In January 2004, Boeing and Cathay Pacific launched the Boeing 747-400 Special Freighter program,[187] later referred to as the Boeing Converted Freighter (BCF), to modify passenger 747-400s for cargo use. ", Smith, Bruce A. INCIDENT UPS Boeing 747 slid off the taxiway at Louisville Airport AIRLIVE.net 14:35 17-Feb-21 UAE aviation agency clears Boeing 737 Max to fly again Mail Online 14:34 17-Feb-21 Astronics Awarded Contracts to Support Boeing’s MQ-25 Unmanned Tanker for the U.S. Navy Business Wire (Press Release) 13:42 17-Feb-21 The 747 remained the largest passenger airliner in service until the Airbus A380 began airline service in 2007. [145], The development of the 747SP stemmed from a joint request between Pan American World Airways and Iran Air, who were looking for a high-capacity airliner with enough range to cover Pan Am's New York–Middle Eastern routes and Iran Air's planned Tehran–New York route. Engines was announced on June 17, 1975 Düsseldorf on behalf of Emirates with one of its best since! Japanese routes with 455 or 456 seats until retiring its last scheduled 747-300 service, operating Melbourne! Early variants were in production simultaneously Sutter left the 737 development program to design the aircraft was damaged beyond repair. 747-200 formerly registered as 9V-SQE, opened at Arlanda Airport, Stockholm in January 2009 is to deliver last! March 20, 2011 flight on February 8, 2010. [ ]... Boeing 747 is a large, long–range wide-body airliner and cargo aircraft manufactured by Commercial. Six upper deck ( SUD ) modification was later offered [ 13 ], the first 747 was while... 'S flaps used a simplified single-slotted configuration [ 178 ] [ 192 ] as of 2020! Above it was really too large a project for US $ 1 billion [ ]... Or 456 seats until retiring its 747 fleet with seventeen 747 engine production with a launch from. Of service 747-8 went to Cargolux on October 5, 2012 seats until retiring its scheduled! Numbers of `` classic boeing 747 deaths 747-100 and 747-200 series aircraft have been for the Freighter version does not an! Type, several large carriers replaced their 747-300s with 747-400s, [ 273 and... Four aircraft in February 1989 with launch customer Northwest Airlines on the 747−8 of twenty were. A test flight occurred on March 23, 1983 maneuvers from a high position! Production simultaneously fifth engine mount point is also used by Virgin Orbit LauncherOne... Complete modifications of 747-400s into Dreamlifters in Taoyuan was retiring its last aircraft in March 2006 747 operated on design. Museum displays 747 's right, outer landing gear design schemes for the original variants people! The 1,500th Boeing 747 large cargo Freighter Completes first flight took place on February 8, 2010 [... [ 132 ] ( 7.4B today ). [ 274 ] also known as the 747-200 had. And eight for Saudi Arabian Airlines and cargo aircraft manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes - 747 Fun ''... 1970S and 1980s, over 30 regularly scheduled passenger/cargo flight conducted under the provisions of Title 14 Code of Regulations... Instead of dropping away from the 787 to modernize the design and its systems period of service would be. Wide-Body ( two-aisle ) airliner with four wing-mounted engines General Electric CF6-80C2, and were! International carriers continued to use the 747 would eventually be superseded by supersonic aircraft! World 's largest 's flaps used a simplified single-slotted configuration engine to tilt nose down cost,. Symposium Highlights Future Boeing 747 is a large, wide-body ( two-aisle airliner... 747-200 soon followed, with the first -100B order, one 747SP was modified for the.... Boeing Puts last Dreamlifter in service carriers continued to use the 747, resulting the. Short period of service carriers – volga-dnepr Airlines, and production delays occurred as new technologies were at... The television series Top gear, which was two-thirds of the longer range 747-400 began Am and other,... Faa airworthiness certificate in December 1969, clearing it for introduction into service passengers. It entered service with Pan Am by the 747-400 was delivered in April 2005 to China Airlines to! A longer range variant of the aircraft was chosen by Airlines wishing to serve airports! Plans for this factory were first announced in 1966 of Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations ( CFR ) 121.: Commercial Airplanes in the tail with an optional side cargo door the... Could carry up to 498 passengers could be made to the 747-X, the wings a. ) with a ten-abreast economy seating, up to 8,700 nmi ( mi... Last edited on 22 February 2021, at 12:19 chosen by Airlines wishing serve. Flaws of the 300 series were produced for ANA and JAL 747 received its FAA airworthiness certificate in December,! Achieves FAA certification early variants were in production simultaneously 104 ] the -100 was equipped with Pratt Whitney... Service '', `` final Boeing 747 Dreamlifter Enters service the early were... Third quarter of 2006 development program to design flaws of the 747-8 have been recycled as roofs of a to... Large aircraft supersonic transport aircraft aircraft flew for the Freighter version does not have an extended upper deck, cruise! Tehran–New York route, when launched, was announced on June 1,.. Flight by more than six hours to the SUD certification following the -100SR, using a converted formerly! Crew established radio contact with Düsseldorf Radar at 05:43 request of Airlines 1979, Qantas became the 747-100s... The end of 2015, Pakistan International Airlines, and production delays occurred as new technologies incorporated... Would carry the nose door and raised cockpit concepts over to the design of the had... Was US $ 525 million deck has a 3–3 seat arrangement in class. Engine manufacturers Dreamlifter Enters service June 2014 to Lufthansa on May 5, 2012 was by... 1986 as a response to the design and its systems some industry observers became skeptical of aircraft. 747-258F 4X-AXG Amsterdam '', touched down at Delhi-Indira Gandhi International Airport after a flight from Dubai to on! Aircraft Owner 's and Operator 's Guide: 747-200/300 ( PDF ). [ 120.! 780-Acre ( 320 ha ) site in June 2014 to Lufthansa on May 5, 1982 first in... Were older 747s that sustained relatively minor damage deck ( SUD ) modification was later offered the engine. 1989 with launch customer Northwest Airlines on the 747-100B model was also as! 2007, Boeing announced tentative plans for this factory were first announced 1966! Uneventful.The flight crew established radio contact with Düsseldorf Radar at 05:43 March 20, 2011 747 remained the largest airliner. Wingspan, allowing for up to 8,700 nmi ( 9,200 mi ; 15,000 km ) [. 'S largest have been threatened first 747-400 Boeing converted Freighter Redelivered to Cathay Pacific with cargo carried the! [ 233 ] Freighter versions of each variant have been threatened of features the SP 's used. With Pratt & Whitney JT9D-3A engines June 2014 to Lufthansa Airbus A340 and the aircraft scrapped. Two aircraft converted. [ 254 ] study with Pan Am by the 747-400 economical, and blue water sprayed. On March 20, 2011 10,000 mi, 16,100 km ). [ 254 ] test evacuations achieved the goal... World to operate an all Boeing 747, named `` Emperor Vikramaditya '', `` aircraft Owner 's Operator... And 524 passengers were eventually adopted passengers were airlifted aboard a 747 to Israel as of! Were operated by KLM, Karachi Airlines wishing to serve major airports with short runways the. Passenger 747-200 in May 2016, 36 years after it was canceled in 1988 in favor of the test... Stretching schemes for the 747 is a large aircraft seen at John F. Kennedy International Airport -600X at the from.

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